Rabu, 15 Februari 2017

Profil Prof. Dr. Ir. Sugiono Soetomo, DEA

Prof. Dr. Ir. Sugiono Soetomo, CES, DEA lahir di Cirebon, 8 Juli 1946 adalah seorang Arsitek yang telah mengembangkan karier akademik dan professional dibidang Perencanaan Kota (Urban Planning) dan Perancangan Kota (Urban Design). Menyelesaikan pendidikan Arsitektur di ITB pada tahun 1974, meneruskan pendidikan spesialis (CES) dalam bidang Urbanisme dan Amenagement Urbaine ENTPE (Sekolah Nasional Pekerjaan Umum, Perancis) di Paris tahun 1984, menyelesaikan program DEA dan Doktor dalam bidang Urbanisme pada tahun 1988 di Institut Francais d’Urbanisme Universite de Paris VIII. Sejak 1975 menjadi dosen di Fakultas Teknik Universitas Diponegoro, menjadi pendiri dan Ketua Jurusan Perencanaan Wilyah dan Kota (1992-1995), pendiri dan Ketua Program Magister Teknik Arsitektur (1994-2000), serta pendiri dan Ketua Program Magister Teknik Pembangunan Wilayah dan Kota dari tahun (2000-2008) dan tahun 2002 diangkat sebagai Guru Besar pada jurusan yang sama di Fakultas Teknik Universitas Diponegoro dan pada tahun 2004 sebagai pendiri dan Ketua Program Doktor Teknik Arsitektur dan Perkotaan (PDTAP) Universitas Diponegoro hingga 2012.
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Kamis, 08 September 2016

Dokumentasi Kegiatan Joint Degree Doctoral, PDTAP Undip-Prancis

Prof Sugiono Soetomo, Dr Nur Miladan (doktor joint degree), Prof Gilles Hubert, Prof Nathalie Lancret


Atase Pendidikan Indonesia di Prancis, Prof Sudharto P Hadi (Penguji dari Undip/Indonesia, Prof Manuelle Franck (Penguji dari Prancis) & Prof Sugiono Soetomo
Bersama Para Mahasiswa Indonesia di Prancis
Bersama Mantan Rektor Undip (Prof Sudharto P Hadi dan Ibu)
Ujian Doktor Nur Miladan
Bersama Tim Penguji dan Atase Pendidikan
Ujian Doktor Arie fitria di University of Lyon
Dekan Fakultas Teknik, Prof Louis Marrou, Prof Sugiono Soetomo & Sri Karina (sebelum ke Kabupaten Barito Kuala)
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Rabu, 09 Maret 2011

Metamorfosa Karier Akademik

Dalam kematangan usianya Prof Sugiono Soetomo telah mengalami metamorfosa panjang dalam karier akademiknya. Mulai dari Dosen, Pembimbing, Penguji, Pembicara Seminar (dalam & luar negeri), Juri Sayembara Desain Kota, serta banyak lagi yang struktural dalam kampus Undip maupun di luarnya.
Dan pada saat ini telah banyak peraih gelar doktor (Dr) yang dulu beliau bimbing, diantaranya:

1. Dr. Ir. Sudarmawan Juwono (Kampung Kuningan di Kawasan Mega Kuningan Jakarta)
2. Dr. PM Brotosunaryo (Nilai Vertikal Ruang Perkotaan (Studi Kasus Kondominiu/Apartemen di Kota Jakarta Pusat)
3. Dr. Ir. R Siti Rukayah (Simbiosis di Ruang Terbuka Kota Simpang Lima Semarang)
4. Dr. Ir. Bambang Setioko (Integrasi Ruang Perkotaan di Kelurahan Meteseh Kawasan Pinggiran Kota Semarang)
5. Dr. Ir. Gatoet Wardianto (Jalur Pejalan Kaki Berbasis Adaptasi Manusia terhadap Panas Matahari di Ruang Terbuka Kota, Studi Kasus: Jalur Pejalan Kaki di Kota Semarang)
6. Dr. Ir. Ismiyati (Mobilitas Transportasi Dikaitkan Pemilihan Tempat Tinggal di Kawasan Pinggiran Kota Semarang)
7. Dr. Ir. Erni Setyowati (Model Hubungan Orientasi dan Konfigurasi Blok Bangunan Perumahan Kawasan Bandara terhadap Tingkat Kebisingan)

Keberhasilan menjalin hubungan kerjasama dengan Universitas-universitas dari Prancis melalui Program double degree S2 Perencanaan Wilayah dan Kota Undip, saat ini juga meningkat ke jenjang S3 khususnya bidang Arsitektur dan Perkotaan. Terbukti sejak tahun 2010 sampai sekarang beliau juga aktif membimbing mahasiswa Program Cotutelle antara Undip dengan Universitas-universitas Prancis.

1. M. Andrian Isnaeni (Universite Paris 7, "Urban Creative Economy in less Developed Countries", *Prof Sugiono Soetomo, Dr Nathalie Fau)
2. Nur Miladan (ENSAPB-Universite Paris Est, "La Resistance Urbaine de la ville de Semarang, Indonésie : Impact des risques cotiérs sur l'organisation spatiale", *Prof Sugiono Soetomo, Prof Nathalie Lancret)
3. Arie Fitria (ENTPE-Lyon), "Kerjasama inter communal (penerapan ilmu hasil studi di Prancis)", *Prof Sugiono Soetomo,...............)

Sementara yang masih dalam proses pengembangan adalah dengan Universite de La Rochelle (ULR), pembahasan dilakukan dalam kunjungan safari Prof Louis Marrou  (Guru Besar Human  and Cultural Geography ULR) ke S3 Arsitektur dan Perkotaan Undip hari Kamis 5 April 2012 (berita bisa dilihat disini).

Keterangan: * adalah bimbingan bersama.
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Senin, 07 Februari 2011

Semi Urbanization and Regional Development in Central Java, Indonesia

Until now, the discussion of urbanization in developing world is still focused on the process that is occurred in the big cities as well as the big urban agglomeration like mega urban. However, the urbanization process in developing countries is also performing in rural areas around as well as between cities. Globalization creates the concentration of regional urbanization into the national growth centres through a process that transform rural areas into a kind of sub-urban areas, that is a semi urban developed by the “sub-ordination”, under, or depends on the surrounding growth centre. In Indonesia’s experiences, the late 1990s’ economic crisis led to a situation that can be said as the fall of mega cities. Until now, Indonesia’s mega cities remain be a victim of the sickness of national economy because of its high dependency on the globalization. As one of the outcomes, the urbanization has also taken place in other parts of the region that provide opportunities based on their own local resources. The urbanization in rural areas develops semi urban life that has different characteristics with those in the mega urbans, cities, or other national growth centres. The urbanization in rural areas is a representation of development of local resources that supports local development. Together with agriculture sector development, this semi urbanization has become the fruit for regional development from below.

The process of development in Central Java (Java, that has about 7% of the total land area of Indonesia is a home for about 60% of population of the country) dispersed urbanization into the region in the various forms of the stages of urbanization within 20 years of the development (1980-2000) before the crisis. The ten yearly censuses have classified the sub district, which is the smallest administrative boundary in Indonesia, into urban sub districts and non-urban sub districts since 1980. The sub districts that have more than 50 % of its population works in non-agriculture activities, density of population more than 50 persons per HA, and having more than 8 urban facilities, are classified as urbanize sub district. With this classification, the statistic office represents the separate data of all urbanize and rural areas’ population and all their socio economic data in each district of all regencies and municipalities. By using the Arch View program, we can get the map of the distribution of: the stages of urbanization, number of urban population, Gross Domestic Product and others socio economic data in each regencies or municipalities. Then we can found the typologies of regional stages of urbanization and analyze the structure of regional urbanization. And with a focused analysis on the specific districts in some rurbanized regions by using the data from the result of several researches and the students end projects, and observation and discussion in the fields, we can found some interesting process of rurbanization and the role of regional development.

Introduction

The discussion of urbanization is still up to date in the debate on the problems of urban development in developing countries. However, most discussions on urbanization are always focused on the urbanization in the growth centre of the country like metropolitan areas as well as in the mega urban. In the discussion about Indonesia, Jakarta Metropolitan Region always becomes a reference. This attention is due to the mega urban is a part of the presentation of globalization, where the most concentration of national economic settles on, then followed by the trend of global style consumption of the glamorous real estate which presented in the very big publicity of the every day news papers. But, learning from the tragedy of 1998 monetary crisis, this consumption sector is one of the prime tragedies that suffered from the economic crisis. For the shake of economic survival, until nowadays, the Central Government of Indonesia have to deal with the crucial problems of commercial loans did by private sectors fro property developments before the crisis. Therefore, the mega urban where the power of national economic is concentred situates in a very fragile condition in the uncertain of volatile globalization. The process of urbanization must be taken attention not only in this global consumption of mega urban, but it should also be seen as supports for the local development through the encouragement of rural population in developing their local resource in order to produce the value-enriched products for global market. The developments of semi-urban, rural urbanization, as well as secondary cities, are then become important keys in the national development strategy that must be push from below. And as contrary the trend of lazier faire economic development from above (national growth centre) must be guided to be not just to create the field area to develop the global consumer.

The law of local autonomy and economic decentralization in Indonesia have been implemented since 1999. Even over, the head of local government leader has been elected directly by the people in the beginning of this decade, and all are to encourage the democratization.

After the decline of the suffer of economic crisis the global economic begins embracing the national growth centre with the growing of global consumption, the growing of real estate, the toll road following the rising of new cars with the many marks, but in the countryside, the process of semi urbanization has also dispersed.

Indonesia with the total are of 1,890,754 km2 is the archipelagic country with more than 200 million populations. As the most fertile island among the five big islands of Indonesia, the proportion of land area in Java Island is only about 7% of the total land area in Indonesia. However, Java is a home for about 60% of the country population. Java Island is also being the centre of rice production in Indonesia. However, Java faces a density problem in the rural area, and due to the majority of population still work in agricultural sector, the situation makes the land-household ratio for agriculture is approximately 0.5 ha per family. More over, since the productivity of this sector is still low, even declining in some regions, the non agricultural activities have been emerging and engaging in the rural area, so the role of urban activities in supporting rural life have been increasing sharply.

Jakarta Metropolitan Region with an approximately of 16 million inhabitants is situated in the northern part of west Java. Then, the second big city of Surabaya with the approximately of 3 million people Is situated in east Java, and Semarang with only approx 1.3 million people is the biggest city and capital of Central Java Province. The urban primacy in Central Java is very low comparing to these two parts of Java. With 40 % of urbanization and the urban population annual growth of 1.3 %, the central Java has a dispersed urbanization.

Central Java, which is known as “the Heart of Javanese cultures“ where live the Javanese ethnic, is a region that has an abundant of historical and cultural heritage that is originated from a long history of Indonesian rice production culture. This culture developed various handicrafts, arts and cultural life products that can be said as “the genius loci” in the urban life of small town and rural centres.

The long history of Central Java development and prosperity is derived on the fertility of its land resource. The centres of urbanization has been taken place in the small towns that are known as ‘kota kabupaten’ or the cities in the regional districts instead of in the bigger cities that known as ‘kota’ or the municipalities. Central Java has a dispersed urbanization, with the various tiles of urban space from the dispersed rural centres and towns as agropolises in rural area, the secondary cities in the north coastal and inland regions, medium size city developed from the old palace (sultan of Surakarta Hadiningrat), to the coastal metropolitan of Semarang as the capital of Central Java Province. In the southern part of Central Java laid the Province of Special Region of Jogyakarta, which is governed by the Sultan as the governor. Jogyakarta and Surakarta are twin palaces that were born in the colonial era. Then in the independent era, within the republic of Indonesia, the kingdom region of Jogyakarta become the special province and the palace of Surakarta with the city of Surakarta become a part of central Java province.

Semi urbanization is a phenomenon of urbanization in rural area that shows characteristic of urban life mixed with the rural life as a result of process of change of rural area or rural life into urban life. In this context, semi urban still maintain the rural linkage in the spatial context and activities. This type of urbanization is not the same as informal activities in urban areas, which has a mixture urban rural characteristic as its characteristics. Informal sector in the city is a result of the creation of rural-urban migrations that can not or not yet enter into the formal sector within the process of urban development that contents a selective process of modernization. So, the informal sector is the rest of modernization, the un-fortune or the result of modernization created by the urban development.

The important think that maintain the semi urbanization process in the rural area is the interdependent activities of urban and rural activities. But the succession process of rural activities by the urban or modern sector, which creates the enclave of urban space with the lack of rural linkage, is not semi urbanization.

The development of local capacity linked to the global context, can truly be arriving in the famous label of “the Glocalization “, the power of global market must empower the local development which can develop the local consumption to become the local economic power.

The development process of semi urbanization in Central Java can be found in the three types of origin, and the mixture of them. The typology is classified by what I found in the typology of urbanization in rural area as mentioned by Alain Garnier in the Switzerland (1984, Les nouvelles cite dortoirs), which certainly have not similar condition with the situation in Indonesia (Java), but still has a same principle about the different between the infill urbanization and the local urbanization in rural area.

  • The first type is the sub urbanization:
The urbanization that changes rural area with infill of expansion of urban development from the centre and still in the condition of semi urban or mixture of urban and rural activities.
  • The second type is the peri urbanization:
The development of urban life is created by the infill of urban activities in the rural area far from the city that usually as an urban creation to exploit the natural environment for a particular activity, such as a mining town, tourism resort, bungalow, new town, modern industrial cluster, extractive industries etc.
  • The third type is the rurbanization :
The development of urban life that grow based on the rural life as a result of the increasing and development of rural population into urbanized population, for examples: the small town or centre service for rural life, developed by economic market network of the region; the concentration of “rural manufacture” develops the multiplier of urban activities. This phenomenon is the urbanization developed by the surplus of local resources of the growing agriculture product, the rural manufacture, non agriculture activities of production that maintain the rural activities.

The Structure of Regional Urbanization and Development in Central Java

From rural to urban

The ten yearly census of population since 1980 have classified the sub-district (the smallest administrative boundary) categorized into urban sub-districts and non-urban sub-districts. The sub-districts that have more than 50 % of its population work in the non-agriculture activities, density of population more than 50 persons per HA, and have more than 8 urban facilities are classified as urban sub-districts. By this result, the statistic office represents the separate data of all urban and rural population: number of population (urban and rural) and all their socio economic data in each district of all regencies and municipalities.

By using the arc-view program, we can get the map of distribution of the degree of urbanization of each regency and municipality in Central Java Province. The percentage of urban population from the total population in regencies or municipalities, the categorizations of the degree of urbanization is:
  • the most urbanized (75%-100% of urbanization),
  • the urbanized, (50% -75 % of urbanization)
  • the semi urbanized (25%-50% urbanization),
  • and the low urbanized or rural (25%-0 urbanization).
With the classification, we can find the spatial structure of urbanization in the regional context: from ruralized area to urbanized area. Even though urbanization of Central Java is 40% (less than 50 %), its mean that this region is not urbanized yet. However, some particular regencies have been urbanized with more than 50% of their population have been categorize as urban population. And the semi urban (25%-50%) region has developed following in the axis of the northern coastal region from the western border until the city of Semarang capital of province, and down to the south to the triangle centre of the heart of Javanese region (Semarang-Surakarta–Jogyakarta). Some regency in the Surakarta Metropolitan Region that is the core is the municipality of Surakarta have been urbanized: Sukahardjo (69.52%), Klaten (64.27%). Then, we also find two urbanized regencies (Kudus; 67.85%) and Jepara (50.77%) in the north east separating or far from the urbanized corridor or metropolitan region. And the semi urbanized corridor also develops in the southern part of central Java.

The representation of spatial structure of regional urbanization in central Java we can find three typologies:
  • The urbanization following the regional axis
  •  The urbanization extending the metropolitan core
  •  The urbanization developing from independent local growth centre.
The first type is representation of the sub urbanization, the changing of agriculture land to urban built environment as a result of the development of urban activities that is derived by the development of regional accessibility; the development of the metropolitan region, the urbanizing of villages and development of towns surrounding the big city. The development of local resources by the evolution of village as the cross road of the fertile region, or the development of cluster manufacture traditional or historic, these towns develop the growing cities and become the growth centre

The structure of regional urbanization develops the wide semi urban region as the mixture of urban and rural life. The semi urban has various types sub urbanization, peri urbanization and rurbanization, and the mixture of the three or two types.

Most of the regencies in Central Java are arriving in condition semi urban, the total urbanization of central Java was 27 % in 1990, and 40% in 2000. It means that the urban population growth rate about 13% in 10 years or about 1.3% per year. The number was high compared to the total population growth of about 0.84% from 1990-2000. With that urban population growth rate, we can expect there will be more than 50% urbanization in Central Java in 2010. Therefore, the role of semi urbanization is very important in the regional development.

When we see the structure spatial of urbanization, we can see the rest of rural condition (urbanization is less than 25%) localize in the centre part of the province that has mountainous region (Wonosobo, Temanggung). In this case, we can said that the reason of low or semi urbanize in the centre part of the province is due to its topography. But there are other regions in central Java that is known as “the stagnant region“ that have characteristics of almost the rural regencies. They are: some regions in the southern part of the province (Banjarnegara, Kebumen, and Purworejo) and the south east part (Wonogiri) and in the east centre part to the north (Grobogan, Purwodadi and Blora). These regions have bad land condition and also far from the growth centre of central Java. Even though, the regional road has been developed across the regions, the regional traffic flow has not developed yet, so the regional linkages are not enough to develop this region.

The structure of regional development is also be traced by the map of economic product of the regencies and municipalities by the data of Gross Domestic Regional Product. There are two maps provided: GRDP per capita (Figure 1) and GRDP distribution (Figure 2).

Figure 1: The Gross Regional Domestic Product per capita of Each Regencies and Municipalities (The structure of regional economic)

Figure 2: The Gross Regional Domestic Product Distribution of Each Regencies and Municipalities

The map (Figure 4) of secondary and tertiary sectors of GRDP gives the spatial structure of urban economic of the region that have the similar structure with the spatial structure of the map of total GRDP (Figure 2). These figures indicate that the semi urban condition has an important role for the regional economic.
The regional spatial structure of GRDP shows that almost semi urban regencies have good economic level than the rural regencies, except in the mountainous region like Temanggung and Wonosobo. They have good level of economic, but the rest has the low economic level. However, GRDP per capita is not always representing the real condition of the condition of economic life. The big regency with the big number of population like Banyumas regency that has GRDP about Rp 1,028,604,670,000, which is bigger than Banjarnegara (Rp 611,664,770,000) and Temanggung (Rp 697,991,690,000), has a lower GRDP per capita than the other two regencies. The GRDP per capita of Banyumas was about Rp 695,605.69, is less than Banjarnegara (Rp 992,760.84) and Temanggung (Rp 1,063,526.97). In fact Banyumas Regency has a high semi urbanized region with the rate of urbanization about 45.56%. Furthermore, its capital, Purwokerto, is a secondary city in Central Java, that also the biggest city in the southern part of Central Java some major activities like trade, small and medium industries, universities, and supported by the mountainous tourism resort in Baturaden, which only about 10 kms from Purwokerto to the Mountain of Slamet in the north. The condition of GRDP per capita of this regency is very low. This represents the gap of economic productive between rural and urban sub districts in this regency.

For a specific regency, like Cilacap Regency in the southwest coastal of Central Java that has national oil extractive industry and other modern industries with high technology (see Figure 1), has a very high value of GRDP. However, the urbanization rate is low. This condition is derived by the situation that the national and high technology industries do not have good linkages to the local economic activities of the region (rural area). This is what I said like the mining town that creates peri urbanization with economic enclave. The city of Cilacap can grow supported by the regional economic of the regency and the service domestic consumption of the employees of the extractives industries that develop the local economic. But still the economic activities in the city cannot improve the economic productivity of the region in a significant rate.

Kudus and Jepara the Cluster Growth Regencies 

The most interesting regencies of urbanizing region are Kudus and Jepara. These regions are situated far or cutting from the extending growth centre of Central Java. Kudus population in 2000 was about 576,491 persons and the urbanization rate about 67.85%, while Jepara is 968,823 persons 50.7% respectively. Kudus and Jepara have developed as the independent of local cluster growth with a high urbanization rate. The spatial structure of their urbanization (see Figure 3 and Figure 4) are quite similar. The regency of Kudus has only 2 sub districts in rural condition with urbanization rate that less than 25%. Two other sub districts in semi urban (urbanization is 25-50%) and two sub districts are minimum urbanized (50-75%), and the three sub districts include of the city sub district of Kudus, which are the most urbanized sub district (urbanization 75-100%). The regency of Jepara has also only two rural sub districts, four semi urban sub districts, and three minimum urbanized sub districts, and two most urbanized sub districts including the city sub district of Jepara.

The spatial structure of urbanization in Kudus Regency is represented by the nodal centre starting from the city of Kudus, in the junction of regional road, and then extends to the other sub districts. The cigarette industries are still concentred in the city centre as the economic elements of the history of the city, while the other new industries are settled in the out side of the city using the regional road and create the sub urbanization. The sub urbanization is represented in the Figure 3 with the occupation of Kudus’ population dominated in secondary and tertiary sectors, while the primary sectors or the agriculture sector is declines continue to the outside of sub urbanization.

Figure 3: Urbanization and Main Occupation of Population in Kudus Regency Year 2000

Figure 4: Urbanization and Main Occupation of Population in Jepara Regency Year 2000

Figure 5: The Percentage of Urban Population in Each Regencies and Municipalities (The Structure of Regional Stages of Urbanization)

In Jepara, the spatial structure of urbanization in the regency is different with that of Kudus. The dispersed small industries of furniture and wood handicrafts as well as other traditional handicrafts like traditional textile have changed the rural life. The facade of regional road that links Jepara to Kudus is developed by the shops, show rooms as well as industries of wood furniture handicraft. This situation made the urban ribbon development is growing as urban activities while in the back side of the buildings laid the villages that are populated by home industries as the village industries. The semi urban is created by the sub urbanization in the facade of the regional road, while the rurbanization is growing in the inside zone. The rurbanization process is developed by the local genius of the local population in producing wood furniture, handicrafts and handcrafting, while almost the sub urbanization in the frontage regional road is the infill of modern urbanization came from the outside, both from domestic as well as international market. In this case of urbanization, the combination of local and global urbanization (the Glocalization) is the fruit of development that should be developed as one of the strategy of regional development from below and then from above. (See Figure 6)

These high urbanized regencies are supported by the high value of GRDP as well as GRDP per capita. Kudus’ GRDP in 2000 was about Rp 3,087,617,870,000 while its GRDP per capita was about Rp 4,387,559.66. Meanwhile, Jepara’s GRDP was about Rp 989,279,740,000 and its GRDP per capita was about Rp 1,020,967.51. Industrial sector contributes the highest proportions in both GRDPs. The industrial sector in Jepara contributes about 27.72% to its GRDP, while the agriculture sector only contributes 22.31%. In Kudus, industrial sector provides 60.46% to its GRDP, while the agriculture sector was only 3.23%.

The city of Kudus is classified as a secondary city with a population of 94,493 inhabitants in the year of 2000. It is the capital of Kudus Regency, so it attracts other industries. The printing industries, that its number was about 15 units with 5,255 employees and output value about Rp 386,086,659,000 in the year of 2002, is the second biggest industry after the clove cigarette industries in the city. Clove cigarette industry was about 52 units with 54,157 employees and the output value of Rp 6,269,388,935,000 in year of 2002. With other industries, the total employees of industrial sectors in this regency are was about 70,308 persons in 2002.

Kudus is a regency that is known as the first development of traditionally clove cigarette manufacture, the famous export Indonesian cigarette. The clove cigarette is the traditional cigarette that historically was born in Kudus. Traditionally, this industry is an intensive labour industry, but the modernization of the production face to the dilemma of labour limitation. The government policy has decided by the mix combination of the system of production: intensive labour and modernization, the minimum labour has been decided. The biggest company of this industry in national wide is Jarum that is located in the inner city of Kudus, and followed by Gudang Garam that is located in Kediri, East Java. Kudus is a small regency with a small city that has been classified as an urbanized region statistically, even though this regency is still rural visually. Although the modern urban life and modern facilities are beginning in the last few years, the big department store or the mall development, and the modern square have changed some part of city centre, but housing settlement is still majority in typical traditional house.

The city of Kudus is also famous as the Islamic city. The first Islamic Kingdom in Java was built in Kudus. The first mosque was built in 15 century by Wali of Sunan Kudus. The mosque is located in the heart of old city surrounded by traditional Islamic settlement with wood ornament rich traditional house that is famous as a very typical of Kudus style traditional Architecture. The traditional system of lay out of housing settlement is the mixture system between traditional Javanese architecture and the heart of Islam.

The regency of Jepara in the north of Kudus Regency is famous with the wood traditional ornament furniture. It has attracted many foreign companies to participate in this product. There are various types and systems of production from traditional to modern system, from the household industries to large scale modern manufacturing. These wood furniture and handicrafts activities are scatter in all part of regency, but there are many strong concentrations in the Sub district of Tahunan, especially in the Village of Tahunan and Sukodono, and the sub district of Mlonggo in the village of Karanggodang. The concentration, then, become cluster industries with specific and specialization.

The “agglomeration” of the furniture and handicrafts industries is more effective in the process of production, (answer of the questionnaires; Wiwandari 2001). So clustering those industries develops economic scale in production process. Therefore, urbanization process in the rural area has been run fast with the change of village life that is participated by the local population. So, it was different with the sub urbanization that is caused by the expansion or infill by the urban sector in the rural area. The traditional village of furniture and handicraft that has become “the global village” represent a mix of traditional and modern industries that is indicated by many shops and tourists, wood furniture and handicraft home industries cooperated with domestic or foreign company. The huge number of industrial units strengthening Jepara’s local and global linkage by absorbing the rural population and also the export its products into global. However, in the other hand, expanding Jepara’s market into global lead the wood as the raw material of the products become a problem, even though there was a diversification of wood material into other materials such as teak wood, or low quality other woods. The improvement ability of the local genius, to produce high quality products from all materials is important. The development of wood processing technology, with the mixture with good materials, good design, the choice about where the wood ornament must be located in the focal point are important to sustain the productivity of the activities. The limitation and efficiency of wood ornament material, the maintenance and enhancement the quality of pure handicraft, development of design creation, and empowerment of household system industry, prevented the mass production, are the way to make the sustainability of the quality art of this high value culture of industry heritage by the long history as the genius loci (local genius).

Figure 6: Urbanization and Number of Industries in Jepara Regency Year 2000

Some interesting data about wood furniture and handicraft industries in Jepara Regency can be seen in Table 1. The table shows the improvement of wood furniture and handicrafts industries in Jepara Regency along 1995 to 1999, in terms of their number of industry, number of employments, investment values, materials usage and value of materials, volume and value of productions, as well as the disperse of the industries in the sub districts and villages in Jepara. 


Toward The Strengthening of Semi Urbanization for the Regional Development From Below

The globalization and local development 

The era of globalization creates the mobility of capital although most of the capital goes to the centres of national urban growth, which is always part of the global economic space. The experience of economic crisis in 1998 has given the learning that Indonesia’s national economic value is volatile to abroad through the mal hyper investment in the centres of national growth. The volatile economic of globalization is an opportunity but also a risk, therefore the development of local capacity is an important base. The local development network in the regional context is needed to stretch out the global economic that entering and pushing the local power. How to transform the global power into local power, and bring the power into the wider range of local network and push the export oriented for the local product is a critical question in this era.

In the monetary crisis, Indonesia has experience that the local-resources-based export products gain economic surplus. By this argument, it is mean that the growth centre in the big cities that is very dependent to the global network and resources is not a prospect in gaining the economic development in national wide; even we have developed the very risk situation. The later economic crisis is the product of the impact of global economic and the national growth centres, like the mega urban, is the first and the main victim of globalization, and creates the snow bowling process of crises to the entire region and national wide. Because of the most of national economic power stay in these growth centres, so impacts of economic crisis is very deep.

From rural to semi urban

How to develop the local development network in the regional context, that’s why the semi urban has an important role. The regional-urban network extended from metropolitan to the rural area must be managed in a development concept of the semi urban process. The local development of growth centres like Jepara and Kudus are the very good product of the wisdom of genius loci. The local development process base on the historic of local power is very important to observe. The thesis of semi urban has been done by Manuelle Franck, the French geographer in 1988 has found the important role of semi urban to the local urbanization and development in the certain region in the east Java. Many researches have been done, but the national development policy has never seen, until the crisis of globalization strikes the old regime that is very confidence with the mega urban and the international fund.

The spatial structure of regional economic also presents that the growth centres in Central Java are difficult to extend, the east, centre and south east parts of this province like the regencies of Pati, Rembang, Grobogan, Purwodadi, Blora, Wonogiri, Kebumen, Banjarnegara, are still categorized as the stagnant region. Therefore, we confidence that the growth centre is a bore concept even though the growth centres are natural phenomenon in the history of regional development. But the mal function of the regional economic in the developing world as the heritage of the structuration of colonial economic like: the dualistic of socio economic and the dualistic region and rural-urban dichotomy are still become the footprint in the character of the present regional economic development. The empowerment from the bottom is the only way to overcome this problem that must be achieved by the political decision, political forces, not by the laisez faire. The democratic life is a political power for choosing the concept of development, but the democratization must become the process of empowerment of the local population.

The local development and genius locy 

To achieve the high capacity of rural area, development process of value added in the rural resources must be proceed by using the urban activities like the market distribution, transformation or manufacturing to the higher product. The development of genius loci or high local capacity like the artistic handicraft, the artisan of the traditional housing, the potential tourism objects (the landscape and good weather, historic heritage, cultural activities etc) is needed. When we speak about traditional architecture, there is the tragedy, when this artistic and beautiful and high taste of this culture identity now has become the luxurious product in the prestigious real estate with the very high price, even exported, but the location and the people where the genius loci is born is still very poor. The capitalism of market process of this rural genius loci has brought the exploitation of the artisan at labour. The process of selling and abolishing the original or the antique traditional architecture of the Kudus House and brings to Jakarta and even exported is very bad condition for the local development in the city of Kudus. The development of human resources to conserve and develop the traditional architecture like in Bali is maintain in the local origin is important, so we can see that Bali still maintain its richness of all local genius not only architecture but all the culture and social life. As the result of these actions, Bali still always become a destination for tourists and investments from local as well as global resources that are attracted by the Balinese high local resources.

Local development network 

The dispersed of handicraft home industries from village to village bring the process of the concentration of industrial cluster. Many centres of production of wood furniture handicraft in Jepara Regency learn that the local capacity of traditional talent is easy to spread out. The industrial network is developing with the multiplier effect and its backward and forward linkages, and the semi urban is born. The local development network is growing with many sectors and the people of the village can participate in. The spatial networks create the linkages from rural to regional as well as international context and the export activities are growing by the establishment of foreign company in the village.

The talent of rural people is not only base on the heritage or local culture production. It can be dispersing and disseminating like the talent in clove cigarette production that was in the beginning found by the effort of a family of Haji Jamari in Kudus Regency when he tries to get the special cigarette when he was ill. This industry was born in a home industry by the labour intensive to roll the cigarette. Until now the intensive labour to roll the cigarette is still required, and even is regulated by the local authority to the big companies of clove cigarette, in order to maintain the need of non-machinery clove cigarette for the local market in Indonesia. The growing of cigarette industry is very fast to become the big company with labour intensive, network linkages of activities that develop many industries to support this cigarette industry as well as tobacco plantation.

And we find also in the rural area far from the growth centre, in Purbalingga regency, a Korean company develops a wig industry (artificial hair for lady) supported by the intensive labour and the local resources of the natural hair.

These examples industries represent how the local development in the rural area can bring to the global linkage, but they have already a very strong local network. This small economic is very beautiful, is different with the big foot loose economic in the national economic growth centre that depend on foreign investment, that still suffering from the late 1990s economic crisis in Indonesia. The rural industries like in Jepara, Bali and also in Kudus have gained the surplus of export in the era of crisis.

Morphological spatial structures of semi urbanization

The morphological spatial structures are very important to observe, because the process of urbanization is always produce the built environment. The strategy of development of urbanization in rural area will create the problem of urban sprawl. The dispersed semi urban is the process of scattered urbanization will destroy the landscape and environment and the agriculture. The regional economic of semi urban as the spatial economic of urban rural linkage must be guided in spatial physical morphology. The tendency of spatial activities producing the semi urbanization must be well understood in order to overcome the problem of spreading settlement by guiding the spatial development. Principally the problems of scattered settlement as the sprawl development are:
 Destroy the landscape, agriculture and ecological balance.
 Create the disconnecting communities.
 Create the traffic jam in the regional road and pollution.

The objectives of the strengthening semi urban are:
 To maintain an urban rural reciprocal activities
 To support agriculture distribution and economic of the farmer
 To empower local resource
 To push the local development
 To develop the wide network of economic activities in the region

So the spatial context is very important to guide the morphological settlement with:
 Limitation the change of natural and agriculture by the concept of Compact settlement
 Creation of the centres within the guided network
 Guiding the development by limitation to the system network of roads
 Determination of urban growth boundary.

The spatial problem of semi urbanization must be guided by the corridor development system (Figure 7) and combined with the cluster development, both for sub urbanization and rurbanisation. The corridor development is an easy method to guide the physical development of sub urbanization. It should be employed in order to prevent the destruction of environment. The cluster development as TOD transit Oriented Development is developed in the corridor as a nodal can be used as centre of services activities in serving the compact settlement of rurbanization in the village industries and also the development of agriculture production in the hinterland of corridor. So, the modern urban development is achieved in the corridor, while the traditional rurbanization is still as a compact housing settlement in the hinterland within the agriculture activities in surrounding areas.

The peri urbanization as the town mining is another question; this enclave urbanization has made many problems in the regional development. So the strategy for this phenomenon will be discussed in another event.

Figure 7: Corridor Urban Rural Sustainable Development

Conclusion

The semi urbanization is still growing in the rural area of Java Island, where the rural space is very populated, and the farmer is still dominant, although the value or the price of production is very low. But certain regions like Kudus Regency and Jepara, especially Kudus is already urbanized or industrialized regency.

The structure of semi urban dominates in the regional network, and followed by the development of GRDP (Gross Regional Domestic Product), and the agriculture region or rural area (few urbanized) followed by the low GRDP.

The examples of Kudus and Jepara as local growth centres, is a learning for the regional development I Indonesia that have a success for developing the local development network and bring to the global network.

The local resources base development for the agriculture and non agriculture sectors are very important and support by the enhancement of semi urban network.

The development of semi urban must be guided in spatial context to prevent the destruction of environmental and agriculture.


Bibliography

Calthorpe, Peter & Fultou, William. (2001): The Regional City: Planning for the End of Sprawl. Island Press, Washington.

Central Java Statitistic Center Biro. (2003): Central Java figure. BPS, Central Java.

Friedman, John. (1988): Life Space and Economic Space Essay in Third World Planning. Transaction Books, Oxford.

Garnier, Alain. (1984): Les Nouvelles Cités dortoirs, presses Pollitechniques Romandes.

Jepara Statitistic Center Biro. (2000): Jepara figure. BPS, Jepara.

Jepara Statitistic Center Biro. (2000): GRDP. BPS, Jepara.

Katz, Peter. (1994): The New Urbanism: Toward an Architecture of Community. McGraw-Hill Inc, New York.

Kudus Statitistic Center Biro. (2004): Statistic Manufacture. BPS, Kudus.

Kudus Statitistic Center Biro. (2000): Kudus Figure. BPS, Kudus.

Kumasa, Asfaw and McGee,Terry G. (2001): New Regional Development Paradigm Volume 1: Globalization and the New Regional Development. Greenwood Press, London.

Power, T. Michael. (1996): Lost Landscapes and Failled Economies. Island Press, Washington.

Rogers, Richard & Power, Anne. (2000): Cities for a Small Country. University Press, Cambridge.

Rutz, Werner. (1987): Urbanization of the Earth Cities and Town in Indonesia.

Soetomo, Sugiono. (2002): Strategi Desain Ruang Sub Urban dalam Menopang Pembangunan yang Berkelanjutan: Merajut Ruang yang beragam dari Pedesaan ke Perkotaan (Design Strategic of Sub Urban Space to Support the Sustainable Development: Knitting the Heterogeneous Space from Rural to Urban). The speech report for the inauguration of the Professor of Architecture and Planning in The Faculty of Engineering Diponegoro University. Badan Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang.

Soetomo, Sugiono. (2003): Urban Development as the interface of Regional Development From Below In central Java – Indonesia (The Case of Semarang Metropolitan) Developing the Bending of Continuum Rural-Urban: From agropolitan of rurbanization to the metropolitan area of Sub urbanization. Paper presented in ISoCaRP, 2004, 40th congress.

Stohr, WB and Taylor, D.R.F. (1981); Development from Above or Below?: The Dialectics of Regional Planning in Developing Countries. John Wiley and Sons.

Subangun, Emanuel & Tanuwidjoyo, Jatmiko. (1993): Industri hasil tembakau, tantangan dan peluang. Satuan tugas industri tembakau.

Handayani, Wiwandari. (2001): Efisiensi kolektif pada sentra industri mebel Jepara; Thesis Magister Perencanaan Wilayah dan Kota, ITB.

Sumber: Web PDTAP
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Jumat, 04 Februari 2011

Semarang : Menuju Kota Hijau yang Cerdas

1. BENCANA ALAM DAN PEMBANGUNAN KOTA

Perkembangan peradaban manusia yang telah berlangsung ribuan tahun ini pada saat sekarang  telah sampai pada peradaban yang dikenal dengan Globalisasi. Abad global tersebut adalah keterjalinannya  kehidupan manusia di dunia ini yang  antara lain berbentuk  kecepatan penjalaran  peradaban yang sangat cepat. Dan hal tersebut menciptakan proses « homogenisasi «  artinya manusia dibawa ke arah budaya yang sama yang sudah terlihat jelas yaitu budaya konsumtip yang sama ,Robert Potter  mengatakan sebagai « the same desire « ( 1980 ). Keinginan yang yang sama itu adalah berasal dari kekuatan penciptaan pasar (market) dari sistem kapitalis yang telah dianut hampir semua negara maju dan berkembang. Di lapangan hal tersebut dapat dicontohkan pada  cepat berkembangnya  keinginan mempunyai produk-produk global seperti hand phone, komputer, kendaraan ber merk yang terus   cepat berkembang . Keinginan mode pakaian dan life style sosial yang sama, semua hal tersebut  mengarah ke kebudayaan barat asal penjalaran dari kapitalisme dunia.  Proses  homogenisasi tersebut disebut Robert Potter ( 1980) sebagai  proses konvergensi . Oleh karena itu perdaban kapitalistik, atau dapat disebut perdaban konsumtip telah makin dan sangat cepat berkembang setelah peraban sosialis yang merupakan tandingannya ( lawannya ) disumberkan atau dipimpin Uni soviet telah  runtuh. Peradaban konsumtip sebagai bentuk yang diciptakan oleh kekuatan kapitalisme adalah suatu bentuk kehidupan yang menjamin kehidupan kapitalisme. Jadi kekuatan pasar adalah sesuatu yang dapat diciptakan oleh pengembangan teknologi  informasi  dan komunikasi  sebagai kekuatan kapitalis untuk mengembangkan segala bentuk informasi dan distribusikan dalam jaringan komunikasi global.
Peradabaan  produksi dan konsumsi cepat berlangsung menciptakan proses exploitasi sumber daya alam untuk dikonsumsi.
Pembangunan kota adalah bentuk ruang terbangun tempat berlangsungnya proses konsumsi masyarakat. Metropolis sebagai kekuatan konsentrasi masyarakat urban adalah pusat produksi dan konsumsi global berkejalinan, berajut, dari pusat pusat ke sub pusat wilayah kota-kota hingga kota kecil di planet ini. Ruang alamiah sebagai sumber daya alam tertutup bangunan  atau dieksploitasi sebagai ruang produksi dan konsumsi manusia  urban ( perkotaan ). Urbanisasi adalah proses terbentuknya masyarakat kota dalam ruang perkotaan merupakan  proses perkembangan  peradaban manusia yang melakukan eksploitasi alam secara cepat. Pemanasan global diproduksi dari ruang-ruang terbangun tempat manusia berproduksi  dan berkonsumsi  yaitu ruang perkotaaan  telah menciptakan peningkatan temperatur ( penggunaan penghawaan buatan / air condition, gas buangan alat transport maupun pabrik-pabrik). Perubahan tata air dan produk sanitasi yang kurang dikelola menciptakan banjir dan polusi. Pembangunan kota-kota besar yaitu pembangunan ruang terbangun berskala besar ( menyebar ) seperti kota metropolis, mengembang menjadi kota wilayah  (Urban region )  menciptakan proses percepatan kerusakan planet bumi  tempat manusia itu  hidup.    
  
Proses pembangunan yang sangat cepat di planet bumi ini telah ditandai dengan kejadian pardoxal  sebagai berikut  :
Di satu pihak peradaban manusia sangat cepat berkembang  dipacu oleh  penemuan  ilmu dan penerapan teknologi untuk mencapai « kesejahteraan  lahiriah «, namun di pihak lain pengembangan  kesejahteraan lahiriah tersebut  mengakibatkan ancaman bencana alam pada  tempat atau ruang  manusia itu hidup  baik dalam skala lokal mikro maupun global dan  mendasar. Ruang kehidupan perkotaan lah sebagai ruang perkembangan peradaban bagi kesejahteraan lahiriah manusia tetapi menjadi penyebab terjadinya bencana alam.
Perkembangan kota disebabkan oleh pertambahan kelahiran penduduk yang sedikit kontribusinya, namu  dipacu oleh proses pergeseran atau migrasi penduduk dari pedesaan ke kota serta proses transformasi  penduduk dari kehidupan desa ke  kota. Oleh karena itu bagaimana usaha usaha manusia untuk mengurangi proses perkembangan bencana alam tersebut ? Apakah kelahiraan manusia dikurangi? Dan proses kehidupan perkotaan dikurangi ?agar ruang ruag perkotaan ( ruang terbangun ) direduksi pertambahannya ? Apakah peradaban dan kesejahteraan lahiriah manusai yang dikurangi ?
Konsep tersebut telah dipikirkan banyak orang dan jawabannya adalah dalam usaha manusia meningkatkan  peradabannya  harus melalui proses pembangunan  yang berkeadilan  sekaligus menyelamatkan sumber daya alam untuk generasi selanjutnya. Inilah konsep yang dikenal sebagai Pembangunan yang Berkelanjutan. Kuncinya adalah bagaimana produk peradaban berupa ruang perkotaan (urban space) ditata agar dapat mengembalikan  kekuatan sumber daya alam dengan berkeadilan. Penataan ruang terbangun pertama-tama harus didasari oleh  daya terima atau kemampuan yaitu karakteristik ruang alam. 

2. SEMARANG DARI KERAPUHAN ALAM  KE POTENSI PENGEMBANGAN

    Telah kita ketahui bersama bahwa masalah bencana alam yang melanda secara rutin kota Semarang  seperti banjir  air hujan maupun masuknya air laut serta tanah longsor di beberapa wilayah atas adalah  sudah menjadi pengetahuan umum. Saya selalu mengatakan di berbagai kesempatan bahwa kota Semarang tidak akan bisa mencapai apapun visi pembangunan kalau masalah banjir terutama di jantung kota tidak teratasi. Rutinitas banjir apalagi rob ( masuknya air laut ) betul-betul  telah membentuk citra kota yang negatip. Citra adalah produk  persepsi yang paling tinggi dalam pandangan manusia, artinya sulit dihapus atau memerlukan waktu lama dalam menghilangkan persepsi  walau keadaan nyatanya sudah berubah.
    Pada dasarnya  dengan berbagai sejarah pengalaman manusia hingga sekarang kita sudah bersepakat bahwa Pembangunan yang Berkelanjutan merupakan Paradigma. Paradigma adalah pendapat yang dianggap benar  apabila  sudah dipilih tidak bisa diperdebatkan dan harus konsisten dijabarkan secara teknis. Paradigma Pembangunan Berkelanjutan menyangkut dua aspek utama dalam pembangunan  yaitu perlindungan potensi alam dan keadilan sosial, hal tersebut untuk menjaga keberlanjutan  pembangunan. Pada aspek pertama dijabarkan bahwa kondisi alam atau sumber daya alam menjadi konstanta yang akan memberikan referensi ke arah mana pembangunan dilakukan. Kondisi banjir yang dialami kota Semarang bawah  adalah  suatu kerapuhan wilayah karena  merupakan bagian wilayah  aluvial yang terletak hampir sama atau di bawah permukaan laut serta di belakangi oleh perbukitan yang terjal.  Dan selanjutnya  tanah aluvial secara konstruksi adalah  rentan dalam menopang beban karena  tergantung pada kekuatan air tanah di bawahnya. Suatu struktur alami yang menjadi konstanta bagi semua pemikiran pembangunan di atasnya . Penggunaan air tanah dan penggunaan daerah-daerah rendah tangkapan air merupakan suatu pelanggaran dalam paradigma pembangunan yang berkelanjutan. Dan daerah resapan air diperbukitan menjadi persyaratan utama dilestarikan  untuk menjaga air tanah di kota bawah dan mengurangi run off di kota bawah. Pengetaahuan ini merupakan pengetahuan umum yang sudah diketahui oleh  masyarakat apalagi pengambil kebijakan. Karakter fisik alam ini dengan kerentananya dari kota Semarang sudah menjadi  common sense,  menjadi pengetahuan umum.
    Karakter alam dan segala kerentanan  kota Semarang sudah menjadi citra alami kota tersebut. Jadi semua pembangunan fisik harus mempertimbangkan  hal tersebut. Hal tersebut  kalau dilanggar kota Semarang  tidak akan lepas dari masalah bencana.
    Berangkat dari sini maka saya ingin mengusulkan pemikiran pembangunan tata ruang kota Semarang yang harus mengikuti paradigma keberlanjutan , suatu hal yang akan menjadi dasar bagi penentuan  visi pembangunan.         
    Tujuan  pembangunan kota Semarang selanjutanya  adalah bagaimana memanfaatkan karakter maupun kerentanan fisik alam ini menjadi potensi pembangunan yang menciptakan potensi  ekonomi kota maupun keadilan sosial.
    Potensi « kerentanan « pada daerah-daerah yang rendah di bawah muka air laut dan selalu terendam air hujan maupun air laut harus dikembalikan  sebagai fungsi ekosistem. Adapun pemanfaatan manusia terhadap daerah semacam tersebut harus dikreasikan agar memberi keuntungan ekonomi dan keadilan Semua lahan  ada pemiliknya baik publik (pemerintah) maupun masyarakat. Di sinilah penetapan fungsi untuk daerah daerah kekuatan eko sistem harus memberikan  subsidi terhadap pemilik tanah sehingga terjadi keadilan penataan ruang. Kebijakan insentip dan disinsentip tersebut merupakan alat untuk mencapai tata pembangunan yang berkelanjutan. Yaitu penataan ruang  mempunyai dasar kelestarian eko sistem, pengembangan ekonomi  dan keadilan sosial.    

    3.  « SMART GREEN CITY » BENTUK PARADIGMA PEMBANGUNAN KOTA YANG BERKELANJUTAN
      Jawaban dari persoalan di atas semua untuk kota Semarang yang mempunyai struktur ruang alami yang spesifik :bukit dan bagian tanah datar  berupa tanah alluvial dan laut  mempunyai kerentanan banjir dan kekuatan tanah yang tergantung atas kandungan air tanah di kota bawah, hanya ada satu jawaban untuk menciptakan kota Semarang yang berkelanjutan :
      SMART GREEN CITY “ , green atau hijau di sini adalah makna alami, kota Semarang harus dibangun berdasarkan karaktersitik alamnya yang mempunyai  kerentanan yang tinggi dan harus dicerdasi agar  menjadi potensi.
      Konsep pembangunan kota Semarang  berdasar  karakteristik alamnya  :
      1.  Daya terima dan kesediaan ruang   
      Konsep pembangunan melalui pengaturan ruang akan menjaga siklus air tanah antara perbukitan dan daerah alluvial . Bahwa Daerah perbukitan terutama daerah yang tetap harus menjaga fungsi resapan hal tersebut penting untuk menjaga volume air tanah di kota bawah yang diperlukan menjaga kostruksi tanah. Sedang daerah bawah yang berada di bawah permukaan laut dilestarikan sebagai daerah penampungan air hujan , terutama daerah pantai yang sekarang berfungsi perikanan Tambak (Aqua culture) tetap dilestarikan bersama pengembangan tanaman Bakau yang diperlukan untuk melindungi abrasi pantai dan mengurangi dampak tsunami.Begitu juga area lain yang terendam air laut menjadi sekaligus tampungan mencegah banjir.
      Penggunaan ruang atau lahan menjadi lahan terbangun (ditutupi bangunan) dalam area luas kota harus  sesuai dengan DAYA TERIMA RUANG (alam). Daya terima ruang akan dipertimbangkan terhadap aspek kemampuan lahan menerima pembangunan yaitu aspek-aspek yang menyangkut  :
      Kerentanan alam yang dapat menimbulkan bencana, untuk kota Semarang terletak kepad aspek2 di atas tersbut :
      Daerah alluvial hrus dijaga kandungan air tanah untu menjaga kekuatan beban bangunan di atasnya.
      Daerah atas merupakan daerah resapan untuk  mengisi  aqua feer  (air tanah) di kota bawah.
      Perbandingan minimal ditentukan dalam UU 2006 no 27 yaitu ruang terbuka ( tidak terbangun ) adalah sebesar 30 %, namun besaran ini  adalh minimum, dan hal yang cukup adalah sebesar 50 %  karena  tidak semua area dapat meresap tanah dengan baik.
      Dengan melihat perkembangan penduduk kota Semarang dan rasio tata ruang urban sebesar 70 orang per Ha , maka kita dapat melihat proyeksi  ketersediaan ruang kota Semarang sebagai berikut : 
      Kesediaan lahan
       Kondisi sekarang 2010  luas lahan
      non Terbangun                 = 16958,58682 Hectare (48%)
       Terbangun         = 18643,81818 Hectare (52 %)
      Tahun 2015
      Non Terbangun                = 14.120,61279 Hectare ( 40 %)
      Terbangun          = 21.481,79221 Hectare ( 60 %)
      Tahun 2020
      Non Terbangun                = 12.227,49591 Hectare ( 34 % )
      Terbangun          = 23.374,90909 Hectare ( 66 % )
      Tahun 2025
      Non Terbangun                = 10.076,59981 Hectare ( 28%)
      Terbangun          = 25.525,80519 Hectare ( 72 % )

      Tahun 2030
      Non Terbangun                = 9.560,2650 Hectare ( 27 %)
                  Terbangun          = 26.509,64 Hectare ( 73 % )
       
      Perkembangan ruang terbangun kota Semarang  akan mencapai kondisi tidak seimbang ( tidak cukup ) mulai tahun 2025, di mana ruang non terbangun hanya tersisa 27 %. Adapun untuk mencapai kondisi ideal  sudah terlewat, ruang terbangun pada saat sekarang ( 2010) sudah di bawah 50 %. Pada th 2020 di mana merupakan batas tahun RUTRWK 2010-2030 ruang non terbangun sudah  tinggal 27 %, jadi dibawah standard minimal, di bawah ketentuan UU 2006 th27. Hal tersebut memerlukan kebijakan pemadatan bangunan, maka mendorong pembangunan rumah bertingkat  minimal 2 lantai sudah harus dilakukan.
      Pertama  kesediaan ruang  ini tidak pernah diperhitungkan dalaam analisis RUTRW bahkan di UU Penataan Ruang. Yang kedua pengadaan ruang untuk kepentingan publik sebesar 20 % cara mendapatkan bagaimana ? hal tersebut juga tidak mendapaatkan perhatian dalam UU tersebut. Apakah pemerintah harus membeli tanah? UU pertanahan tentang sempadan pantai dan sungai merupakan ruang pendukung alami memang berada kekuasaan publik, apakah aspek sertifikat sudah ditetapkan ? bahkan kita banyak melihat bangunan-bangunan water front  itu merupakan penggunaan pribadi, bahkan pantai di depan hotel-hotel di Taman Impian Jaya Ancol  masuk  di halaman taman tersebut yang harus membayar kalau masuk.
      Pengadaan ruang hijau publik adalah sangat menjadi masalah. Ketidak mampuan pemerintah membeli tanah untuk lapangan sepak bola pada setiap kecamatan atau lapangan bermain pada setiap kelurahan. Pengadaan melalui real estate adalah cara untuk mendapatkan ruang publik yang terbayar oleh pembeli kapling. Namun peraturan real estate sulit diterapan secara standar apalagi  ideal karena pendekatan pasar yang berlaku. Di Prancis , Singapur dan banyak negara maju ada yang tidak menerapkan pengembang lahan oleh perusahaan swasta tetapi dilakukan oleh perusahaan pemerintah yang tidak menarik keuntungan. Pemerintah yang bertindak  membebaskan lahan ( yang dikenal sebagai bank lahan ) dan menjualnya. PERUMNAS pun tidak mampu melaksanakannya walaupun merupakan perusahaan publik. Karena model pemerintah berperan dalam menentukan pembelian dn penjaualan lahan menuntun pemerintah harus  mempunyai  kapital yang besar. Peran besar pemerintah dalam mekanisme pasar lahan memang berada di dalam paradigma atau  keperpihakan politik yang tidak sama dengan kebebasan mekanisme pasar yang diyakini lebih efisien (?). Melalui mekanisme pasar masyarakat lah  yang akan membeayai pengadaan tanah publik. Hasil di lapangan pengadaan ruang public sangat tergantung terhadap harga jual kapling oleh developer sehingga menyulitkan terjadinya ruang publik. Mungkin cara kombinasi  melaui swasta dan pemerintah dapat dilakukan untuk mencapai keberhasilan pengadaan ruang publik. Tetapi perusahaan  campuran tersebut harus mempunyai kekuatan anti korupsi yang besar.
        
      1. Pembangunan Kota berbasis ruang hijau :
      Dengan tujuan pengadaan ruang hijau dan ruang air di Semarang maka kota Semarang harus dicanangkan sebagai kota Hijau  ( Green city ), suatu jargon yang sedang dicanangkan di seluruh dunia agar masing-masing kota memberi kontribusi terhadap penurunan emisi karbon untuk penurunan pemanasan global . Dengan demikian Visi Kota Hijau Semarang akan mendukung terhadap pemecahan kerentanan alam ( bencana banjir dan longsor ) tetapi juga berkontribusi kepada tuntutan global dalam mengurangi emisi karbon.
      Kota  hijau merupakan simbol kedekatan alam dengan pembangunan. Karakteristik dan kerentanan alam menjadi dasar terhadap konsep pembangunan. Untuk kota Semarang suatu sistem tata air dan tata hijau merupakan dasar bagi penguatan struktur alam kota yang mempunyai struktur :
      Perbukitan, tanah datar dengan dua sistem geologi  yang berbeda antara  daerah bukit dan daerah datar yang merupakan hasil pengembangan  pantai.
      Ruang hijau akan mempermudah peresapan air hujan untuk mengisi aqua feer kota bawah yang memperkuat untuk menopang beban bangunan.
      Ruang hijau atas akan menurunkan emisi gas carbon dan dengan vegetasi tanaman keras akan memperkuat tanah permukaan perbukitan dari kelongsoran
      1. Konsep CPULS :  Continous Productive Urban LandscapeS

      Konsep Green city telah banyak dilakukan di berbagai negara, salah satu konsep yang terkenal adalah ( 2005, Viljoen). Konsep penghijauan kota ini merupakan pengembangan landscape yang menerus dalam hubungan urban dan rural serta merupakan landscape productip. Konsep tersebut mempunyai sasaran :
      ·         Usaha pengembangan lingkungan yang mengurangi  panas
      ·         Usaha bersifat ekonomi, berupa kegiatan Urban Agriculture menciptakan produk pertanian organik, yang mengurangi  konsumsi produk industri pertanian  yang penuh dengan bahan kimia dan menelan energi  yang tidak renewable.
      ·         Pengembangan landscape merupakan usaha menciptakan kehidupan di luar bangunan yang menciptakan  komunitas.  Kegiatan farming oleh penduduk kota dan kegiatan olah raga di alam luar menciptakan kontak social yang baik.
      ·         Kontinuitas landscape urban agriculture di kota dan menyambung ke desa menciptakan sistem ekologi yang lebih luas dari skala kota ke skala wilayah. Hubungan desa kota tidak hanya secara ekonomi saja tetapi juga secara ekologis. Urban Agriculture dilakukan di wilayah atas bagian selatan maupun tenggara yaitu kecamata Semarang selatan dan kecamatan Gunung Pati  menyambung ke wilayah kabupaten Semarang dan Kendal.
      ·         Landscape produktip juga akan berupa pertanian tambak dengan hutan bakau yang menerus dari bagian pantai  barat kecamatan Tugu ke wilayah Kendal dan Pantai Timur pada kecamatan Genuk menerus ke Kendal.
      ·         Semua kegiatan Urban agriculture dan aqua culture ( tambak ) akan dapt dikembangkan sebagai obyek wisata  alam yang sangat menarik. Kombinasi pertanian kota dan  “wisata desa” di dalam wilayah kota dengan kegiatan memancing di kolam, panen buah-buahan dan taman bunga merupakan landscape produktip. “Wisata desa “ akan memberi daya tarik terhadap kegiatan wisata konferensi yang memberi suasana tenang dan segar.    Adapun kawasan tambak dan hutan bakau dapat menjadi wisata air ( memancing dan sampan )  yang dilengkapi dengan rumah makan dan cottages juga serta jogging track di hutan bakau dengan fasilitas jalan kaki berupa  jembatan kayu menlusuri hutan bakau.   
      ·         Pengembangan pohon pohon produktip   buah-buahan dikembangkan untuk melindungi daerah perbukitan. Perbukitan di bagian tengah kota Semarang yang penuh dengan permukiman “kumuh “ harus dilakukan untuk menjaga tanah langsor maupun memberi  kesan alami dan menutupi kawasan permukiman  tersebut  membuat bukit-bukit  di kota Semarang tengah mempunyai pemandangan yang estetis.
        
          
      4. STRATEGI REALISASI
        Persoalan yang paling menentukan dalam menciptakan Green City adalah dalam pengadaan lahan. Undang mengharuskan tanah publik 20 % merupakan pertanyaan besar.
        Hanya dalam sistem real estate ruang terbuka umum dapat diciptakan melalui mekanisme pasar harga kapling bangunan yang telah termasuk harga semua area.
        Ruang kota dan kesediaan ruang untuk kepentingan publik bagi penanggulangan bencana khusunya harus ditopang oleh masyarakat itu sendiri dan pemerintah. Pengadaan ruang terbuka di  lahan privat harus dilakukan di samping lahan publik . Ketentuaan perlindungan / konservasi alam harus dilakukan  di lahan  privat seperti : ruang resapan air dan   penghijauan  penguatan tanah.  Ruang resapan dengan penanaman pohon yang tidak mahal harus diberlakukan di semua  area pengembang swasta.
        Ruang ruang terbuka penjaga daerah rentan atau sebagai kawasan lindung walaupun merupakan tanah pribadi harus dikonservasi. Untuk itu subsidi harus diberikan seperti pembebasan pajak bumi dan memberi modal untuk  usaha produktip berupa kegiatan pertanian, pariwisata , olah raga dan lainnya yang penting masih mendukung fungsi perlindungan alam.
        Penataan ruang harus terbagi dahulu antara wilayah  tidak terbangun yang berada  ( di luar kapling ) dan wilayah terbangun. Untuk ruang tidak terbangun merupakan konstanta yang artinya suatu penetapan yang tidak pernah berubah. Adapun ruang terbangun merupakan ruang yang dapat berubah pemanfaatannya melalui revisi penatan ruang pada selang waktu revisi ( 5 tahun ) . Urban mutation merupakan perubahan pemanfaatan lahan di area terbangun yang selalu terjadi karena perkembangan penduduk dan perkembangan fungsi non permukiman. Misalnya jalan Pandanaran dahulu adalah perumahan ketika kota Semarang masih berpenduduk ratusan ribu.Namun setelah penduduk bertambah maka pertokoan pun bertambah sebagai hukum peningkatan demand terjadi peningkatan supply, dan perkembangan  daerah komersialpun menjalar dari jalur komersial jalan mataram masuk ke jalan pandanaran yang merupakan jalur permukiman dan berkembang di simpang lima. Perkembangan area pemanfaatan sebagai aktivitas  komersial  tersebut  tidak  terjadi  dengan loncatan ke daerah  pinggiran kota  tetapi menjalar dari pusat kota . Keadaan tersebut mencerminkan  hukum economic scale yang berkembang secara keruangan.

        Pengembangan Urban agriculture harus merupakan  kebijakan yang harus didukung baik dalam aspek bisnis maupun sosial.  Pengembangan sektor pertanian kota merupakan kebijakan melindungi para petani yang jumlahnya masih banyak ( diatas 50.000 orang th 2006 )   dari kehilangan tanah dan pekerjaannya. Pengembangan  kegiatan pasca panen dan off farm sebagai proses kaitan kebelakang dan kedepan  pengembangan pertanian merupakan hal yang mudah dilakukan karena sektor tersebut berada dalam wilayah kota yang tersedia  dengan fasilitas. Sektor distribusi ( penjualan ) dan kualitas/kuantitas  konsumen menjadi kekuatan daya tarik pengusahaan pertanian kota. Sektor pertanian kota ( termasuk Tambak ) dapat dikembangan atau dikombinasikan dengan sektor lain yaitu sektor pariwisata dan sektor industri dar hasil pertanian.
        SEMARANG SMART GREEN CITY SELANJUTNYA MENJADI KEKUATAN KOTA YANG PERKASA DALAM SEKTOR EKONOMI DAAN SOSIAL DAN MERUPAKAN PEMENUHAN TERHADAP KEBUTUHAAN ATAMA YAITU KEAMANAN DARI BENCANA ALAM YANG TIDAK BISA DITOLAK. 

        5. LAMPIRAN VISUAL PEMBELAJARAN SMART GREEN CITY

         

        PERPUSTAKAAN :
        Benton-Short, Lisa and Short, John Rennie, 2008, Cities ad Nature. Routledge.
        Thwaites Kevin, Porta Sergio, Romice Ombretta and Greaves Mark, Editors, 2007, Urban Sustainability trough environmental Design, Routledge.
        Viljoen Andre, Editor, 2005, Cpuls Continous Productive Urban Lanscapes. Elsevier.
        Pierce-Barry Costa, Editor, 2005, Urban Aqua Culture. CABI Publishing.
        Semarang-Pemerintah Kota , Editor, Materi Teknis.
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