Senin, 07 Februari 2011

Semi Urbanization and Regional Development in Central Java, Indonesia

Until now, the discussion of urbanization in developing world is still focused on the process that is occurred in the big cities as well as the big urban agglomeration like mega urban. However, the urbanization process in developing countries is also performing in rural areas around as well as between cities. Globalization creates the concentration of regional urbanization into the national growth centres through a process that transform rural areas into a kind of sub-urban areas, that is a semi urban developed by the “sub-ordination”, under, or depends on the surrounding growth centre. In Indonesia’s experiences, the late 1990s’ economic crisis led to a situation that can be said as the fall of mega cities. Until now, Indonesia’s mega cities remain be a victim of the sickness of national economy because of its high dependency on the globalization. As one of the outcomes, the urbanization has also taken place in other parts of the region that provide opportunities based on their own local resources. The urbanization in rural areas develops semi urban life that has different characteristics with those in the mega urbans, cities, or other national growth centres. The urbanization in rural areas is a representation of development of local resources that supports local development. Together with agriculture sector development, this semi urbanization has become the fruit for regional development from below.

The process of development in Central Java (Java, that has about 7% of the total land area of Indonesia is a home for about 60% of population of the country) dispersed urbanization into the region in the various forms of the stages of urbanization within 20 years of the development (1980-2000) before the crisis. The ten yearly censuses have classified the sub district, which is the smallest administrative boundary in Indonesia, into urban sub districts and non-urban sub districts since 1980. The sub districts that have more than 50 % of its population works in non-agriculture activities, density of population more than 50 persons per HA, and having more than 8 urban facilities, are classified as urbanize sub district. With this classification, the statistic office represents the separate data of all urbanize and rural areas’ population and all their socio economic data in each district of all regencies and municipalities. By using the Arch View program, we can get the map of the distribution of: the stages of urbanization, number of urban population, Gross Domestic Product and others socio economic data in each regencies or municipalities. Then we can found the typologies of regional stages of urbanization and analyze the structure of regional urbanization. And with a focused analysis on the specific districts in some rurbanized regions by using the data from the result of several researches and the students end projects, and observation and discussion in the fields, we can found some interesting process of rurbanization and the role of regional development.

Introduction

The discussion of urbanization is still up to date in the debate on the problems of urban development in developing countries. However, most discussions on urbanization are always focused on the urbanization in the growth centre of the country like metropolitan areas as well as in the mega urban. In the discussion about Indonesia, Jakarta Metropolitan Region always becomes a reference. This attention is due to the mega urban is a part of the presentation of globalization, where the most concentration of national economic settles on, then followed by the trend of global style consumption of the glamorous real estate which presented in the very big publicity of the every day news papers. But, learning from the tragedy of 1998 monetary crisis, this consumption sector is one of the prime tragedies that suffered from the economic crisis. For the shake of economic survival, until nowadays, the Central Government of Indonesia have to deal with the crucial problems of commercial loans did by private sectors fro property developments before the crisis. Therefore, the mega urban where the power of national economic is concentred situates in a very fragile condition in the uncertain of volatile globalization. The process of urbanization must be taken attention not only in this global consumption of mega urban, but it should also be seen as supports for the local development through the encouragement of rural population in developing their local resource in order to produce the value-enriched products for global market. The developments of semi-urban, rural urbanization, as well as secondary cities, are then become important keys in the national development strategy that must be push from below. And as contrary the trend of lazier faire economic development from above (national growth centre) must be guided to be not just to create the field area to develop the global consumer.

The law of local autonomy and economic decentralization in Indonesia have been implemented since 1999. Even over, the head of local government leader has been elected directly by the people in the beginning of this decade, and all are to encourage the democratization.

After the decline of the suffer of economic crisis the global economic begins embracing the national growth centre with the growing of global consumption, the growing of real estate, the toll road following the rising of new cars with the many marks, but in the countryside, the process of semi urbanization has also dispersed.

Indonesia with the total are of 1,890,754 km2 is the archipelagic country with more than 200 million populations. As the most fertile island among the five big islands of Indonesia, the proportion of land area in Java Island is only about 7% of the total land area in Indonesia. However, Java is a home for about 60% of the country population. Java Island is also being the centre of rice production in Indonesia. However, Java faces a density problem in the rural area, and due to the majority of population still work in agricultural sector, the situation makes the land-household ratio for agriculture is approximately 0.5 ha per family. More over, since the productivity of this sector is still low, even declining in some regions, the non agricultural activities have been emerging and engaging in the rural area, so the role of urban activities in supporting rural life have been increasing sharply.

Jakarta Metropolitan Region with an approximately of 16 million inhabitants is situated in the northern part of west Java. Then, the second big city of Surabaya with the approximately of 3 million people Is situated in east Java, and Semarang with only approx 1.3 million people is the biggest city and capital of Central Java Province. The urban primacy in Central Java is very low comparing to these two parts of Java. With 40 % of urbanization and the urban population annual growth of 1.3 %, the central Java has a dispersed urbanization.

Central Java, which is known as “the Heart of Javanese cultures“ where live the Javanese ethnic, is a region that has an abundant of historical and cultural heritage that is originated from a long history of Indonesian rice production culture. This culture developed various handicrafts, arts and cultural life products that can be said as “the genius loci” in the urban life of small town and rural centres.

The long history of Central Java development and prosperity is derived on the fertility of its land resource. The centres of urbanization has been taken place in the small towns that are known as ‘kota kabupaten’ or the cities in the regional districts instead of in the bigger cities that known as ‘kota’ or the municipalities. Central Java has a dispersed urbanization, with the various tiles of urban space from the dispersed rural centres and towns as agropolises in rural area, the secondary cities in the north coastal and inland regions, medium size city developed from the old palace (sultan of Surakarta Hadiningrat), to the coastal metropolitan of Semarang as the capital of Central Java Province. In the southern part of Central Java laid the Province of Special Region of Jogyakarta, which is governed by the Sultan as the governor. Jogyakarta and Surakarta are twin palaces that were born in the colonial era. Then in the independent era, within the republic of Indonesia, the kingdom region of Jogyakarta become the special province and the palace of Surakarta with the city of Surakarta become a part of central Java province.

Semi urbanization is a phenomenon of urbanization in rural area that shows characteristic of urban life mixed with the rural life as a result of process of change of rural area or rural life into urban life. In this context, semi urban still maintain the rural linkage in the spatial context and activities. This type of urbanization is not the same as informal activities in urban areas, which has a mixture urban rural characteristic as its characteristics. Informal sector in the city is a result of the creation of rural-urban migrations that can not or not yet enter into the formal sector within the process of urban development that contents a selective process of modernization. So, the informal sector is the rest of modernization, the un-fortune or the result of modernization created by the urban development.

The important think that maintain the semi urbanization process in the rural area is the interdependent activities of urban and rural activities. But the succession process of rural activities by the urban or modern sector, which creates the enclave of urban space with the lack of rural linkage, is not semi urbanization.

The development of local capacity linked to the global context, can truly be arriving in the famous label of “the Glocalization “, the power of global market must empower the local development which can develop the local consumption to become the local economic power.

The development process of semi urbanization in Central Java can be found in the three types of origin, and the mixture of them. The typology is classified by what I found in the typology of urbanization in rural area as mentioned by Alain Garnier in the Switzerland (1984, Les nouvelles cite dortoirs), which certainly have not similar condition with the situation in Indonesia (Java), but still has a same principle about the different between the infill urbanization and the local urbanization in rural area.

  • The first type is the sub urbanization:
The urbanization that changes rural area with infill of expansion of urban development from the centre and still in the condition of semi urban or mixture of urban and rural activities.
  • The second type is the peri urbanization:
The development of urban life is created by the infill of urban activities in the rural area far from the city that usually as an urban creation to exploit the natural environment for a particular activity, such as a mining town, tourism resort, bungalow, new town, modern industrial cluster, extractive industries etc.
  • The third type is the rurbanization :
The development of urban life that grow based on the rural life as a result of the increasing and development of rural population into urbanized population, for examples: the small town or centre service for rural life, developed by economic market network of the region; the concentration of “rural manufacture” develops the multiplier of urban activities. This phenomenon is the urbanization developed by the surplus of local resources of the growing agriculture product, the rural manufacture, non agriculture activities of production that maintain the rural activities.

The Structure of Regional Urbanization and Development in Central Java

From rural to urban

The ten yearly census of population since 1980 have classified the sub-district (the smallest administrative boundary) categorized into urban sub-districts and non-urban sub-districts. The sub-districts that have more than 50 % of its population work in the non-agriculture activities, density of population more than 50 persons per HA, and have more than 8 urban facilities are classified as urban sub-districts. By this result, the statistic office represents the separate data of all urban and rural population: number of population (urban and rural) and all their socio economic data in each district of all regencies and municipalities.

By using the arc-view program, we can get the map of distribution of the degree of urbanization of each regency and municipality in Central Java Province. The percentage of urban population from the total population in regencies or municipalities, the categorizations of the degree of urbanization is:
  • the most urbanized (75%-100% of urbanization),
  • the urbanized, (50% -75 % of urbanization)
  • the semi urbanized (25%-50% urbanization),
  • and the low urbanized or rural (25%-0 urbanization).
With the classification, we can find the spatial structure of urbanization in the regional context: from ruralized area to urbanized area. Even though urbanization of Central Java is 40% (less than 50 %), its mean that this region is not urbanized yet. However, some particular regencies have been urbanized with more than 50% of their population have been categorize as urban population. And the semi urban (25%-50%) region has developed following in the axis of the northern coastal region from the western border until the city of Semarang capital of province, and down to the south to the triangle centre of the heart of Javanese region (Semarang-Surakarta–Jogyakarta). Some regency in the Surakarta Metropolitan Region that is the core is the municipality of Surakarta have been urbanized: Sukahardjo (69.52%), Klaten (64.27%). Then, we also find two urbanized regencies (Kudus; 67.85%) and Jepara (50.77%) in the north east separating or far from the urbanized corridor or metropolitan region. And the semi urbanized corridor also develops in the southern part of central Java.

The representation of spatial structure of regional urbanization in central Java we can find three typologies:
  • The urbanization following the regional axis
  •  The urbanization extending the metropolitan core
  •  The urbanization developing from independent local growth centre.
The first type is representation of the sub urbanization, the changing of agriculture land to urban built environment as a result of the development of urban activities that is derived by the development of regional accessibility; the development of the metropolitan region, the urbanizing of villages and development of towns surrounding the big city. The development of local resources by the evolution of village as the cross road of the fertile region, or the development of cluster manufacture traditional or historic, these towns develop the growing cities and become the growth centre

The structure of regional urbanization develops the wide semi urban region as the mixture of urban and rural life. The semi urban has various types sub urbanization, peri urbanization and rurbanization, and the mixture of the three or two types.

Most of the regencies in Central Java are arriving in condition semi urban, the total urbanization of central Java was 27 % in 1990, and 40% in 2000. It means that the urban population growth rate about 13% in 10 years or about 1.3% per year. The number was high compared to the total population growth of about 0.84% from 1990-2000. With that urban population growth rate, we can expect there will be more than 50% urbanization in Central Java in 2010. Therefore, the role of semi urbanization is very important in the regional development.

When we see the structure spatial of urbanization, we can see the rest of rural condition (urbanization is less than 25%) localize in the centre part of the province that has mountainous region (Wonosobo, Temanggung). In this case, we can said that the reason of low or semi urbanize in the centre part of the province is due to its topography. But there are other regions in central Java that is known as “the stagnant region“ that have characteristics of almost the rural regencies. They are: some regions in the southern part of the province (Banjarnegara, Kebumen, and Purworejo) and the south east part (Wonogiri) and in the east centre part to the north (Grobogan, Purwodadi and Blora). These regions have bad land condition and also far from the growth centre of central Java. Even though, the regional road has been developed across the regions, the regional traffic flow has not developed yet, so the regional linkages are not enough to develop this region.

The structure of regional development is also be traced by the map of economic product of the regencies and municipalities by the data of Gross Domestic Regional Product. There are two maps provided: GRDP per capita (Figure 1) and GRDP distribution (Figure 2).

Figure 1: The Gross Regional Domestic Product per capita of Each Regencies and Municipalities (The structure of regional economic)

Figure 2: The Gross Regional Domestic Product Distribution of Each Regencies and Municipalities

The map (Figure 4) of secondary and tertiary sectors of GRDP gives the spatial structure of urban economic of the region that have the similar structure with the spatial structure of the map of total GRDP (Figure 2). These figures indicate that the semi urban condition has an important role for the regional economic.
The regional spatial structure of GRDP shows that almost semi urban regencies have good economic level than the rural regencies, except in the mountainous region like Temanggung and Wonosobo. They have good level of economic, but the rest has the low economic level. However, GRDP per capita is not always representing the real condition of the condition of economic life. The big regency with the big number of population like Banyumas regency that has GRDP about Rp 1,028,604,670,000, which is bigger than Banjarnegara (Rp 611,664,770,000) and Temanggung (Rp 697,991,690,000), has a lower GRDP per capita than the other two regencies. The GRDP per capita of Banyumas was about Rp 695,605.69, is less than Banjarnegara (Rp 992,760.84) and Temanggung (Rp 1,063,526.97). In fact Banyumas Regency has a high semi urbanized region with the rate of urbanization about 45.56%. Furthermore, its capital, Purwokerto, is a secondary city in Central Java, that also the biggest city in the southern part of Central Java some major activities like trade, small and medium industries, universities, and supported by the mountainous tourism resort in Baturaden, which only about 10 kms from Purwokerto to the Mountain of Slamet in the north. The condition of GRDP per capita of this regency is very low. This represents the gap of economic productive between rural and urban sub districts in this regency.

For a specific regency, like Cilacap Regency in the southwest coastal of Central Java that has national oil extractive industry and other modern industries with high technology (see Figure 1), has a very high value of GRDP. However, the urbanization rate is low. This condition is derived by the situation that the national and high technology industries do not have good linkages to the local economic activities of the region (rural area). This is what I said like the mining town that creates peri urbanization with economic enclave. The city of Cilacap can grow supported by the regional economic of the regency and the service domestic consumption of the employees of the extractives industries that develop the local economic. But still the economic activities in the city cannot improve the economic productivity of the region in a significant rate.

Kudus and Jepara the Cluster Growth Regencies 

The most interesting regencies of urbanizing region are Kudus and Jepara. These regions are situated far or cutting from the extending growth centre of Central Java. Kudus population in 2000 was about 576,491 persons and the urbanization rate about 67.85%, while Jepara is 968,823 persons 50.7% respectively. Kudus and Jepara have developed as the independent of local cluster growth with a high urbanization rate. The spatial structure of their urbanization (see Figure 3 and Figure 4) are quite similar. The regency of Kudus has only 2 sub districts in rural condition with urbanization rate that less than 25%. Two other sub districts in semi urban (urbanization is 25-50%) and two sub districts are minimum urbanized (50-75%), and the three sub districts include of the city sub district of Kudus, which are the most urbanized sub district (urbanization 75-100%). The regency of Jepara has also only two rural sub districts, four semi urban sub districts, and three minimum urbanized sub districts, and two most urbanized sub districts including the city sub district of Jepara.

The spatial structure of urbanization in Kudus Regency is represented by the nodal centre starting from the city of Kudus, in the junction of regional road, and then extends to the other sub districts. The cigarette industries are still concentred in the city centre as the economic elements of the history of the city, while the other new industries are settled in the out side of the city using the regional road and create the sub urbanization. The sub urbanization is represented in the Figure 3 with the occupation of Kudus’ population dominated in secondary and tertiary sectors, while the primary sectors or the agriculture sector is declines continue to the outside of sub urbanization.

Figure 3: Urbanization and Main Occupation of Population in Kudus Regency Year 2000

Figure 4: Urbanization and Main Occupation of Population in Jepara Regency Year 2000

Figure 5: The Percentage of Urban Population in Each Regencies and Municipalities (The Structure of Regional Stages of Urbanization)

In Jepara, the spatial structure of urbanization in the regency is different with that of Kudus. The dispersed small industries of furniture and wood handicrafts as well as other traditional handicrafts like traditional textile have changed the rural life. The facade of regional road that links Jepara to Kudus is developed by the shops, show rooms as well as industries of wood furniture handicraft. This situation made the urban ribbon development is growing as urban activities while in the back side of the buildings laid the villages that are populated by home industries as the village industries. The semi urban is created by the sub urbanization in the facade of the regional road, while the rurbanization is growing in the inside zone. The rurbanization process is developed by the local genius of the local population in producing wood furniture, handicrafts and handcrafting, while almost the sub urbanization in the frontage regional road is the infill of modern urbanization came from the outside, both from domestic as well as international market. In this case of urbanization, the combination of local and global urbanization (the Glocalization) is the fruit of development that should be developed as one of the strategy of regional development from below and then from above. (See Figure 6)

These high urbanized regencies are supported by the high value of GRDP as well as GRDP per capita. Kudus’ GRDP in 2000 was about Rp 3,087,617,870,000 while its GRDP per capita was about Rp 4,387,559.66. Meanwhile, Jepara’s GRDP was about Rp 989,279,740,000 and its GRDP per capita was about Rp 1,020,967.51. Industrial sector contributes the highest proportions in both GRDPs. The industrial sector in Jepara contributes about 27.72% to its GRDP, while the agriculture sector only contributes 22.31%. In Kudus, industrial sector provides 60.46% to its GRDP, while the agriculture sector was only 3.23%.

The city of Kudus is classified as a secondary city with a population of 94,493 inhabitants in the year of 2000. It is the capital of Kudus Regency, so it attracts other industries. The printing industries, that its number was about 15 units with 5,255 employees and output value about Rp 386,086,659,000 in the year of 2002, is the second biggest industry after the clove cigarette industries in the city. Clove cigarette industry was about 52 units with 54,157 employees and the output value of Rp 6,269,388,935,000 in year of 2002. With other industries, the total employees of industrial sectors in this regency are was about 70,308 persons in 2002.

Kudus is a regency that is known as the first development of traditionally clove cigarette manufacture, the famous export Indonesian cigarette. The clove cigarette is the traditional cigarette that historically was born in Kudus. Traditionally, this industry is an intensive labour industry, but the modernization of the production face to the dilemma of labour limitation. The government policy has decided by the mix combination of the system of production: intensive labour and modernization, the minimum labour has been decided. The biggest company of this industry in national wide is Jarum that is located in the inner city of Kudus, and followed by Gudang Garam that is located in Kediri, East Java. Kudus is a small regency with a small city that has been classified as an urbanized region statistically, even though this regency is still rural visually. Although the modern urban life and modern facilities are beginning in the last few years, the big department store or the mall development, and the modern square have changed some part of city centre, but housing settlement is still majority in typical traditional house.

The city of Kudus is also famous as the Islamic city. The first Islamic Kingdom in Java was built in Kudus. The first mosque was built in 15 century by Wali of Sunan Kudus. The mosque is located in the heart of old city surrounded by traditional Islamic settlement with wood ornament rich traditional house that is famous as a very typical of Kudus style traditional Architecture. The traditional system of lay out of housing settlement is the mixture system between traditional Javanese architecture and the heart of Islam.

The regency of Jepara in the north of Kudus Regency is famous with the wood traditional ornament furniture. It has attracted many foreign companies to participate in this product. There are various types and systems of production from traditional to modern system, from the household industries to large scale modern manufacturing. These wood furniture and handicrafts activities are scatter in all part of regency, but there are many strong concentrations in the Sub district of Tahunan, especially in the Village of Tahunan and Sukodono, and the sub district of Mlonggo in the village of Karanggodang. The concentration, then, become cluster industries with specific and specialization.

The “agglomeration” of the furniture and handicrafts industries is more effective in the process of production, (answer of the questionnaires; Wiwandari 2001). So clustering those industries develops economic scale in production process. Therefore, urbanization process in the rural area has been run fast with the change of village life that is participated by the local population. So, it was different with the sub urbanization that is caused by the expansion or infill by the urban sector in the rural area. The traditional village of furniture and handicraft that has become “the global village” represent a mix of traditional and modern industries that is indicated by many shops and tourists, wood furniture and handicraft home industries cooperated with domestic or foreign company. The huge number of industrial units strengthening Jepara’s local and global linkage by absorbing the rural population and also the export its products into global. However, in the other hand, expanding Jepara’s market into global lead the wood as the raw material of the products become a problem, even though there was a diversification of wood material into other materials such as teak wood, or low quality other woods. The improvement ability of the local genius, to produce high quality products from all materials is important. The development of wood processing technology, with the mixture with good materials, good design, the choice about where the wood ornament must be located in the focal point are important to sustain the productivity of the activities. The limitation and efficiency of wood ornament material, the maintenance and enhancement the quality of pure handicraft, development of design creation, and empowerment of household system industry, prevented the mass production, are the way to make the sustainability of the quality art of this high value culture of industry heritage by the long history as the genius loci (local genius).

Figure 6: Urbanization and Number of Industries in Jepara Regency Year 2000

Some interesting data about wood furniture and handicraft industries in Jepara Regency can be seen in Table 1. The table shows the improvement of wood furniture and handicrafts industries in Jepara Regency along 1995 to 1999, in terms of their number of industry, number of employments, investment values, materials usage and value of materials, volume and value of productions, as well as the disperse of the industries in the sub districts and villages in Jepara. 


Toward The Strengthening of Semi Urbanization for the Regional Development From Below

The globalization and local development 

The era of globalization creates the mobility of capital although most of the capital goes to the centres of national urban growth, which is always part of the global economic space. The experience of economic crisis in 1998 has given the learning that Indonesia’s national economic value is volatile to abroad through the mal hyper investment in the centres of national growth. The volatile economic of globalization is an opportunity but also a risk, therefore the development of local capacity is an important base. The local development network in the regional context is needed to stretch out the global economic that entering and pushing the local power. How to transform the global power into local power, and bring the power into the wider range of local network and push the export oriented for the local product is a critical question in this era.

In the monetary crisis, Indonesia has experience that the local-resources-based export products gain economic surplus. By this argument, it is mean that the growth centre in the big cities that is very dependent to the global network and resources is not a prospect in gaining the economic development in national wide; even we have developed the very risk situation. The later economic crisis is the product of the impact of global economic and the national growth centres, like the mega urban, is the first and the main victim of globalization, and creates the snow bowling process of crises to the entire region and national wide. Because of the most of national economic power stay in these growth centres, so impacts of economic crisis is very deep.

From rural to semi urban

How to develop the local development network in the regional context, that’s why the semi urban has an important role. The regional-urban network extended from metropolitan to the rural area must be managed in a development concept of the semi urban process. The local development of growth centres like Jepara and Kudus are the very good product of the wisdom of genius loci. The local development process base on the historic of local power is very important to observe. The thesis of semi urban has been done by Manuelle Franck, the French geographer in 1988 has found the important role of semi urban to the local urbanization and development in the certain region in the east Java. Many researches have been done, but the national development policy has never seen, until the crisis of globalization strikes the old regime that is very confidence with the mega urban and the international fund.

The spatial structure of regional economic also presents that the growth centres in Central Java are difficult to extend, the east, centre and south east parts of this province like the regencies of Pati, Rembang, Grobogan, Purwodadi, Blora, Wonogiri, Kebumen, Banjarnegara, are still categorized as the stagnant region. Therefore, we confidence that the growth centre is a bore concept even though the growth centres are natural phenomenon in the history of regional development. But the mal function of the regional economic in the developing world as the heritage of the structuration of colonial economic like: the dualistic of socio economic and the dualistic region and rural-urban dichotomy are still become the footprint in the character of the present regional economic development. The empowerment from the bottom is the only way to overcome this problem that must be achieved by the political decision, political forces, not by the laisez faire. The democratic life is a political power for choosing the concept of development, but the democratization must become the process of empowerment of the local population.

The local development and genius locy 

To achieve the high capacity of rural area, development process of value added in the rural resources must be proceed by using the urban activities like the market distribution, transformation or manufacturing to the higher product. The development of genius loci or high local capacity like the artistic handicraft, the artisan of the traditional housing, the potential tourism objects (the landscape and good weather, historic heritage, cultural activities etc) is needed. When we speak about traditional architecture, there is the tragedy, when this artistic and beautiful and high taste of this culture identity now has become the luxurious product in the prestigious real estate with the very high price, even exported, but the location and the people where the genius loci is born is still very poor. The capitalism of market process of this rural genius loci has brought the exploitation of the artisan at labour. The process of selling and abolishing the original or the antique traditional architecture of the Kudus House and brings to Jakarta and even exported is very bad condition for the local development in the city of Kudus. The development of human resources to conserve and develop the traditional architecture like in Bali is maintain in the local origin is important, so we can see that Bali still maintain its richness of all local genius not only architecture but all the culture and social life. As the result of these actions, Bali still always become a destination for tourists and investments from local as well as global resources that are attracted by the Balinese high local resources.

Local development network 

The dispersed of handicraft home industries from village to village bring the process of the concentration of industrial cluster. Many centres of production of wood furniture handicraft in Jepara Regency learn that the local capacity of traditional talent is easy to spread out. The industrial network is developing with the multiplier effect and its backward and forward linkages, and the semi urban is born. The local development network is growing with many sectors and the people of the village can participate in. The spatial networks create the linkages from rural to regional as well as international context and the export activities are growing by the establishment of foreign company in the village.

The talent of rural people is not only base on the heritage or local culture production. It can be dispersing and disseminating like the talent in clove cigarette production that was in the beginning found by the effort of a family of Haji Jamari in Kudus Regency when he tries to get the special cigarette when he was ill. This industry was born in a home industry by the labour intensive to roll the cigarette. Until now the intensive labour to roll the cigarette is still required, and even is regulated by the local authority to the big companies of clove cigarette, in order to maintain the need of non-machinery clove cigarette for the local market in Indonesia. The growing of cigarette industry is very fast to become the big company with labour intensive, network linkages of activities that develop many industries to support this cigarette industry as well as tobacco plantation.

And we find also in the rural area far from the growth centre, in Purbalingga regency, a Korean company develops a wig industry (artificial hair for lady) supported by the intensive labour and the local resources of the natural hair.

These examples industries represent how the local development in the rural area can bring to the global linkage, but they have already a very strong local network. This small economic is very beautiful, is different with the big foot loose economic in the national economic growth centre that depend on foreign investment, that still suffering from the late 1990s economic crisis in Indonesia. The rural industries like in Jepara, Bali and also in Kudus have gained the surplus of export in the era of crisis.

Morphological spatial structures of semi urbanization

The morphological spatial structures are very important to observe, because the process of urbanization is always produce the built environment. The strategy of development of urbanization in rural area will create the problem of urban sprawl. The dispersed semi urban is the process of scattered urbanization will destroy the landscape and environment and the agriculture. The regional economic of semi urban as the spatial economic of urban rural linkage must be guided in spatial physical morphology. The tendency of spatial activities producing the semi urbanization must be well understood in order to overcome the problem of spreading settlement by guiding the spatial development. Principally the problems of scattered settlement as the sprawl development are:
 Destroy the landscape, agriculture and ecological balance.
 Create the disconnecting communities.
 Create the traffic jam in the regional road and pollution.

The objectives of the strengthening semi urban are:
 To maintain an urban rural reciprocal activities
 To support agriculture distribution and economic of the farmer
 To empower local resource
 To push the local development
 To develop the wide network of economic activities in the region

So the spatial context is very important to guide the morphological settlement with:
 Limitation the change of natural and agriculture by the concept of Compact settlement
 Creation of the centres within the guided network
 Guiding the development by limitation to the system network of roads
 Determination of urban growth boundary.

The spatial problem of semi urbanization must be guided by the corridor development system (Figure 7) and combined with the cluster development, both for sub urbanization and rurbanisation. The corridor development is an easy method to guide the physical development of sub urbanization. It should be employed in order to prevent the destruction of environment. The cluster development as TOD transit Oriented Development is developed in the corridor as a nodal can be used as centre of services activities in serving the compact settlement of rurbanization in the village industries and also the development of agriculture production in the hinterland of corridor. So, the modern urban development is achieved in the corridor, while the traditional rurbanization is still as a compact housing settlement in the hinterland within the agriculture activities in surrounding areas.

The peri urbanization as the town mining is another question; this enclave urbanization has made many problems in the regional development. So the strategy for this phenomenon will be discussed in another event.

Figure 7: Corridor Urban Rural Sustainable Development

Conclusion

The semi urbanization is still growing in the rural area of Java Island, where the rural space is very populated, and the farmer is still dominant, although the value or the price of production is very low. But certain regions like Kudus Regency and Jepara, especially Kudus is already urbanized or industrialized regency.

The structure of semi urban dominates in the regional network, and followed by the development of GRDP (Gross Regional Domestic Product), and the agriculture region or rural area (few urbanized) followed by the low GRDP.

The examples of Kudus and Jepara as local growth centres, is a learning for the regional development I Indonesia that have a success for developing the local development network and bring to the global network.

The local resources base development for the agriculture and non agriculture sectors are very important and support by the enhancement of semi urban network.

The development of semi urban must be guided in spatial context to prevent the destruction of environmental and agriculture.


Bibliography

Calthorpe, Peter & Fultou, William. (2001): The Regional City: Planning for the End of Sprawl. Island Press, Washington.

Central Java Statitistic Center Biro. (2003): Central Java figure. BPS, Central Java.

Friedman, John. (1988): Life Space and Economic Space Essay in Third World Planning. Transaction Books, Oxford.

Garnier, Alain. (1984): Les Nouvelles Cit├ęs dortoirs, presses Pollitechniques Romandes.

Jepara Statitistic Center Biro. (2000): Jepara figure. BPS, Jepara.

Jepara Statitistic Center Biro. (2000): GRDP. BPS, Jepara.

Katz, Peter. (1994): The New Urbanism: Toward an Architecture of Community. McGraw-Hill Inc, New York.

Kudus Statitistic Center Biro. (2004): Statistic Manufacture. BPS, Kudus.

Kudus Statitistic Center Biro. (2000): Kudus Figure. BPS, Kudus.

Kumasa, Asfaw and McGee,Terry G. (2001): New Regional Development Paradigm Volume 1: Globalization and the New Regional Development. Greenwood Press, London.

Power, T. Michael. (1996): Lost Landscapes and Failled Economies. Island Press, Washington.

Rogers, Richard & Power, Anne. (2000): Cities for a Small Country. University Press, Cambridge.

Rutz, Werner. (1987): Urbanization of the Earth Cities and Town in Indonesia.

Soetomo, Sugiono. (2002): Strategi Desain Ruang Sub Urban dalam Menopang Pembangunan yang Berkelanjutan: Merajut Ruang yang beragam dari Pedesaan ke Perkotaan (Design Strategic of Sub Urban Space to Support the Sustainable Development: Knitting the Heterogeneous Space from Rural to Urban). The speech report for the inauguration of the Professor of Architecture and Planning in The Faculty of Engineering Diponegoro University. Badan Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang.

Soetomo, Sugiono. (2003): Urban Development as the interface of Regional Development From Below In central Java – Indonesia (The Case of Semarang Metropolitan) Developing the Bending of Continuum Rural-Urban: From agropolitan of rurbanization to the metropolitan area of Sub urbanization. Paper presented in ISoCaRP, 2004, 40th congress.

Stohr, WB and Taylor, D.R.F. (1981); Development from Above or Below?: The Dialectics of Regional Planning in Developing Countries. John Wiley and Sons.

Subangun, Emanuel & Tanuwidjoyo, Jatmiko. (1993): Industri hasil tembakau, tantangan dan peluang. Satuan tugas industri tembakau.

Handayani, Wiwandari. (2001): Efisiensi kolektif pada sentra industri mebel Jepara; Thesis Magister Perencanaan Wilayah dan Kota, ITB.

Sumber: Web PDTAP

Tidak ada komentar:

Posting Komentar